Wednesday, June 12, 2024

Restrictions on gender-affirming medical care – and assault weapons

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RELIST WATCH
sketch of numerous cameras lined up outside the supreme court

The Relist Watch column examines cert petitions that the Supreme Court docket has “relisted” for its upcoming convention. A brief rationalization of relists is obtainable here.

After going two conferences with none new relists, the Supreme Court docket ended the relist drought this week with a vengeance. Now we have 12 new relists, a number of of that are potential blockbusters if the courtroom grants evaluation.

Gender-affirming care

Three of the instances contain constitutional challenges introduced in opposition to state prohibitions on offering gender-affirming care to minors: United States v. Skrmetti, L. W. v. Skrmetti, and Jane Doe 1 v. Kentucky ex rel. Cameron. Final yr, Tennessee and Kentucky have been amongst a gaggle of greater than 20 states that enacted legal guidelines that prohibit giving transgender youths underneath the age of 18 medical remedy to align their look with their gender id.

Tennessee’s law forbids medical remedies which might be supposed to permit a minor “to establish with, or dwell as, a purported id inconsistent with the minor’s intercourse” or to deal with “purported discomfort or misery from a discordance between the minor’s intercourse and asserted id.” Kentucky’s law prohibits medical remedies “for the aim of trying to change the looks of, or to validate a minor’s notion of, [a] minor’s intercourse.” Each provisions outlaw a spread of remedies, together with gender-reassignment surgical procedure. However the challenges earlier than the courtroom particularly concern two nonsurgical remedies: the administration of puberty blockers to cease bodily modifications introduced on by puberty; and hormone remedy, which seeks to supply physiological modifications to adapt bodily look with gender id.

Transgender youths and their mother and father in each states rapidly introduced constitutional challenges in federal courtroom, searching for to enjoin the legal guidelines earlier than they went into impact. The challengers first argue that the restrictions discriminate on the idea of intercourse and subsequently violate the 14th Modification’s equal safety clause. They contend that the legal guidelines permit the usage of puberty blockers and hormone remedy to adapt a minor’s look to their beginning intercourse, whereas barring transgender minors from utilizing the identical remedies. Second, the challengers argue that the prohibitions violate the 14th Modification’s due course of clause by infringing upon mother and father’ rights to make medical choices for his or her youngsters. The Biden administration intervened on the challengers’ aspect within the Tennessee case.

Federal district courts in each states granted the challengers’ requests to dam the legal guidelines from going into impact. Kentucky and Tennessee then requested the U.S. Court docket of Appeals for the sixth Circuit to elevate these orders whereas they appealed. The courtroom of appeals refused, as an alternative expediting argument. By a cut up vote, the 6th Circuit then reversed the lower courts’ rulings, concluding that the states have been more likely to win their appeals. The courtroom thus allowed the legal guidelines go into impact.

The Biden administration, along with the Tennessee and Kentucky households, search reversal of the sixth Circuit’s ruling. All three challengers keep that the legal guidelines violate the equal safety clause, arguing that underneath Bostock v. Clayton County (wherein the Supreme Court docket held that firing transgender staff on the idea of their gender id violates federal employment discrimination legal guidelines) drawing distinctions on the idea of gender id represent prohibited motion on the idea of intercourse. The personal challengers additionally argue that the legal guidelines violate the due course of clause as a result of the Supreme Court docket has repeatedly struck down state restrictions on mother and father’ skill to boost their youngsters as they see match.

Simply final month, the Supreme Court docket granted Idaho’s request for a partial stay of a lower-court injunction, thus allowing the state’s ban on gender-affirming care to enter impact till the courtroom guidelines on any cert petition – though the injunction nonetheless remained in drive as to the plaintiffs in that case, thus allowing the plaintiffs there to obtain remedy.

There are some variations within the case – within the Idaho case, the district courtroom’s resolution to grant reduction past the plaintiffs – a so-called “common injunction” – was extra outstanding.  However the grant of a keep suggests {that a} majority of the courtroom believes the problem is certworthy and that the state is more likely to succeed. A grant on this case would make subsequent time period very fascinating certainly.

Assault weapons

In early 2023, Illinois adopted the Shield Illinois Communities Act, which prohibits the possession of assault weapons and high-capacity magazines. The state legislation’s definition of “assault weapon” basically adopted the federal-law definition. The act prohibits possession of sure semiautomatic pistols and rifles. A semiautomatic rifle falls underneath the legislation’s proscriptions if it has a removable journal and a number of of the next options: a pistol grip or thumbhole inventory; any characteristic able to functioning as a protruding grip for the non-trigger hand; a folding, telescoping, thumbhole, or removable inventory or a inventory that in any other case enhances the concealability of the weapon; a flash suppressor; a grenade launcher; or a barrel shroud. The definition additionally features a semiautomatic rifle with a set journal capability of greater than 10 rounds (besides those who settle for solely .22 caliber rimfire ammunition). Lastly, there’s a prolonged checklist of explicit fashions that fall throughout the scope of the statute, notably all “AK” weapons (modeled after the Russian AK-47) and all “AR” weapons (these modeled after the AR-15). Individuals who owned such weapons earlier than the efficient date of the legislation are permitted to retain them, topic to some geographic restrictions on use; in any other case, possession is a criminal offense. A number of Illinois municipalities adopted comparable laws.

Gun homeowners, sellers, and curiosity teams introduced a variety of lawsuits arguing that the legislation violated their rights underneath the Second Modification to maintain and bear arms and sought to dam the state from implementing the legislation. Roughly talking, plaintiffs in northern Illinois, which is extra city, misplaced; plaintiffs in southern Illinois, which is extra rural, have been profitable, and a decide there held that the statute was unconstitutional in all its functions and barred the state from implementing it.

In a consolidated attraction, a divided panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 7th Circuit affirmed the denial of reduction for the northern instances and reversed the grant of reduction for the southern ones. The panel stated that, “[u]sing the instruments of historical past and custom to which the Supreme Court docket directed us in [District of Columbia v.] Heller and [New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n v.] Bruen,” which instructed courts to search for analogous legal guidelines in historical past when contemplating the constitutionality of restrictions on the private proper to bear arms, “the state and the affected subdivisions have a robust probability of success within the pending litigation.” The seventh Circuit reasoned that “these assault weapons and high-capacity magazines are rather more like machineguns and military-grade weaponry” that aren’t protected by the Second Modification “than they’re like the various several types of firearms which might be used for particular person self-defense,” and thus they are often regulated or banned.

Six petitions have been filed searching for evaluation of that willpower: Harrel v. Raoul, Herrera v. Raoul, Barnett v. Raoul, National Association for Gun Rights v. City of Naperville, Illinois, Langley v. Kelly, and Gun Owners of America, Inc. v. Raoul. Given the ubiquity of AR- and AK-type firearms, this case will probably be a blockbuster if granted.

Environmental legislation

The Clear Water Act of 1972 regulates the discharge of pollution into regulated waters. The town and county of San Francisco acquired a allow from the EPA underneath the legislation’s Nationwide Pollutant Discharge Elimination System that allowed San Francisco to discharge from its wastewater remedy facility into the Pacific Ocean. San Francisco challenged the phrases of its allow, arguing that the allow contained phrases so obscure that it failed to inform town how a lot it wanted to restrict or deal with its discharges to adjust to the act, whereas concurrently exposing it to legal responsibility for violating the allow provisions. After exhausting administrative cures, San Francisco petitioned the U.S. Court docket of Appeals for the ninth Circuit for evaluation.

A divided panel of the 9th Circuit denied San Francisco’s petition, concluding that the provisions usually are not unduly obscure and are “according to the CWA and its implementing rules.” In dissent, Decide Daniel Collins concluded that these provisions have been “inconsistent with the textual content of the CWA.” He argued that the allow violated the CWA by making the permittee liable for sustaining water high quality requirements with out specifying what limitations on discharges would fulfill its duty.

San Francisco now seeks review, arguing that the ninth Circuit’s resolution conflicts with choices of the U.S. Court docket of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit and the Supreme Court docket itself. The government denies that there’s any such cut up.

Sure, that Michael Avenatti

Michael Avenatti loved his quarter-hour of fame representing porn star Stormy Daniels in her swimsuit in opposition to then-President Donald Trump. Afterwards, whereas representing youth basketball coach Gary Franklin in sponsorship negotiations with sportswear firm Nike, Avenatti threatened to reveal sure paperwork (that his shopper had not licensed him to reveal) except Nike paid him and a colleague greater than $10 million to do an “inner investigation” into sports activities corruption. Based mostly on the conduct, Avenatti was convicted in federal courtroom of extortion and fraud for depriving his shopper of his “sincere providers,” prohibited by 18 U.S.C. § 1346. The U.S. Court docket of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit affirmed his conviction.

In his petition in Avenatti v. United States, Avenatti raises two claims. First, he argues that 18 U.S.C. § 1346 is void “each on its face and” as utilized to him as a result of, as Justice Neil Gorsuch stated in his concurring opinion in final yr’s Percoco v. United States, “[t]o this present day, nobody is aware of what ‘honest-services fraud’ encompasses.” Avenatti claims that he didn’t defraud his shopper – he “at worst … abus[ed] his fiduciary obligation as Franklin’s lawyer by leveraging Franklin’s claims to pursue compensation for himself.” Second, he argues that the majority courts moreover the 2nd Circuit have held that civil litigation conduct — and specifically, an lawyer’s settlement demand — can not assist federal prison extortion legal responsibility. Avenetti argues that underneath the 2nd Circuit’s rule, what would usually be dealt with by bar self-discipline is transformed right into a 20-year felony. The government responds that Avenatti raised neither declare earlier than the courtroom of appeals and that they’re subsequently procedurally defaulted; and even when they weren’t, these claims are meritless.

The Surpeme Court docket has lengthy been skeptical of the honest-services fraud statute and the dangers of overcriminalizing sharp enterprise dealings, so a number of of the justices is unquestionably taking an in depth take a look at this case.

Miranda

Final up is a capital case, Medrano v. Texas. Rodolfo Medrano was a member of a south Texas gang charged with capital homicide for the capturing deaths of six rival gang members throughout a theft. When Medrano was arrested, he invoked his Miranda rights and instructed police he wished to talk to an lawyer. Police then spoke to Medrano’s spouse and instructed her (falsely) that he was not believed to be concerned and can be launched if he spoke to police. She persuaded Medrano to speak, and he confessed to offering the weapons. Medrano protested that he solely supplied weapons for a theft and was not current and didn’t anticipate the shootings to happen, however the jury discovered him criminally accountable. That testimony was then launched in opposition to him at trial, and he was convicted of homicide and sentenced to loss of life. His conviction and sentence have been affirmed on attraction, and his first petition for state post-conviction reduction was denied.

Medrano then filed a second petition for state post-conviction reduction, alleging that his Miranda rights have been violated as a result of police responded to his invocation of his proper to silence by persuading his spouse to speak to him. He additionally argued that skilled testimony launched in opposition to him violated his due course of rights. The Texas Court docket of Felony Appeals concluded that Medrano’s utility did not fulfill a state rule of prison process governing successive petitions, and subsequently dismissed his utility as an “abuse of the writ” of habeas corpus.

In his petition, Medrano renews his argument that legislation enforcement officers violated his Miranda rights by utilizing his spouse to avoid his invocation of his proper to silence. He additionally argues that the rule invoked by the Texas Court docket of Felony Appeals was not truly an “sufficient and unbiased state floor” precluding evaluation of his petition on the deserves. He explains that the rule itself permitted a subsequent petition if the defendant may make a exhibiting that however for a violation of the Structure, no rational juror may have discovered him responsible. That situation is happy right here, Medrano says, as a result of the principal proof launched in opposition to him was the confession he says was improperly procured. In a supplemental brief, Medrano says that his second query is said to a problem the courtroom will likely be contemplating subsequent time period in Glossip v. Oklahoma, so at minimal, the courtroom ought to maintain his petition for decision of that case.

We’ll know extra quickly. Till subsequent time!

New Relists

L.W. v. Skrmetti, 23-466
Points: (1) Whether or not Tennessee’s Senate Bill 1, which categorically bans gender-affirming healthcare for transgender adolescents, triggers heightened scrutiny and certain violates the 14th Modification’s equal safety clause; and (2) whether or not Senate Invoice 1 probably violates the basic proper of fogeys to make choices regarding the medical care of their youngsters assured by the 14th Modification’s due course of clause.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 15, Mar. 22, Mar. 28, Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26 and Could 9 conferences; relisted after the Could 16 convention)

United States v. Skrmetti, 23-477
Problem: Whether or not Tennessee Senate Bill 1, which prohibits all medical remedies supposed to permit “a minor to establish with, or dwell as, a purported id inconsistent with the minor’s intercourse” or to deal with “purported discomfort or misery from a discordance between the minor’s intercourse and asserted id,” violates the equal safety clause of the 14th Modification.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 15, Mar. 22, Mar. 28, Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26 and Could 9 conferences; relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Jane Doe 1 v. Kentucky ex rel. Coleman, Attorney General, 23-492
Points: (1) Whether or not, underneath the 14th Modification’s due course of clause, Kentucky Revised Statutes Section 311.372(2), which bans medical remedies “for the aim of trying to change the looks of, or to validate a minor’s notion of, the minor’s intercourse, if that look or notion is inconsistent with the minor’s intercourse,” must be subjected to heightened scrutiny as a result of it burdens mother and father’ proper to direct the medical remedy of their youngsters; (2) whether or not, underneath the 14th Modification’s equal safety clause, § 311.372(2) must be subjected to heightened scrutiny as a result of it classifies on the idea of intercourse and transgender standing; and (3) whether or not petitioners are more likely to present that § 311.372(2) doesn’t fulfill heightened scrutiny.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 15, Mar. 22, Mar. 28, Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26 and Could 9 conferences; relisted after the Could 16 convention)

City and County of San Francisco v. Environmental Protection Agency, 23-753
Problem: Whether or not the Clean Water Act permits the Environmental Safety Company (or a certified state) to impose generic prohibitions in Nationwide Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits that topic permit-holders to enforcement for violating water high quality requirements with out figuring out particular limits to which their discharges should conform.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Harrel v. Raoul, 23-877
Points: (1) Whether or not the Structure permits the federal government to ban law-abiding, accountable residents from defending themselves, their households, and their properties with semiautomatic firearms which might be in widespread use for lawful functions; (2) whether or not the Structure permits the federal government to ban law-abiding, accountable residents from defending themselves, their households, and their properties with ammunition magazines which might be in widespread use for lawful functions; and (3) whether or not enforcement of Illinois’s semiautomatic firearm and ammunition journal bans must be enjoined.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Herrera v. Raoul, 23-878
Points: (1) Whether or not semiautomatic rifles and customary handgun and rifle magazines don’t depend as “Arms” throughout the extraordinary which means of the Second Modification’s plain textual content; and (2) whether or not there’s a broad historic custom of states banning protected arms and customary magazines from law-abiding residents’ properties.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Barnett v. Raoul, 23-879
Problem: Whether or not Illinois’ sweeping ban on widespread and long-lawful arms violates the Second Modification.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

National Association for Gun Rights v. City of Naperville, Illinois, 23-880
Points: (1) Whether or not the state of Illinois’ ban of sure handguns is constitutional in mild of the holding in District of Columbia v. Heller that handgun bans are categorically unconstitutional; (2) whether or not the “in widespread use” take a look at introduced in Heller is hopelessly round and subsequently unworkable; and (3) whether or not the federal government can ban the sale, buy, and possession of sure semi-automatic firearms and firearm magazines which might be possessed by hundreds of thousands of law-abiding People for lawful functions when there isn’t any analogous Founding-era regulation.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Langley v. Kelly, 23-944
Points: (1) Whether or not the state of Illinois’ absolute ban of sure generally owned semi-automatic handguns is constitutional in mild of the holding in District of Columbia v. Heller that handgun bans are categorially unconstitutional; (2) whether or not the state of Illinois’ absolute ban of all generally owned semi-automatic handgun magazines over 15 rounds is constitutional in mild of the holding in Heller that handgun bans are categorially unconstitutional; and (3) whether or not the federal government can ban the sale, buy, possession, and carriage of sure generally owned semi-automatic rifles, pistols, shotguns, and standard-capacity firearm magazines, tens of hundreds of thousands of that are possessed by law-abiding People for lawful functions, when there isn’t any analogous historic ban as required by Heller and New York State Rifle & Pistol Ass’n, Inc. v. Bruen.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention) 

Gun Owners of America, Inc. v. Raoul, 23-1010
Problem: Whether or not Illinois’ categorical ban on hundreds of thousands of probably the most generally owned firearms and ammunition magazines within the nation, together with the AR-15 rifle, violates the Second Modification.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Medrano v. Texas, 23-5597
Points: (1) Whether or not underneath all of the circumstances, together with an officer’s understanding and deliberate deployment of Petitioner’s spouse to elicit statements from Petitioner whereas he was in custody, the falsity of the knowledge the officer gave her to convey to the petitioner, the power of the inducement he proffered to induce the Petitioner to talk, and the truth that comparable ways have been intentionally employed to acquire confessions Petitioner’s codefendants, introduction of the ensuing assertion Petitioner’s Fifth and Fourteenth Modification rights underneath Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966); (2) Whether or not the Texas Court docket of Felony Appeals’ willpower that the Petitioner’s subsequent petition did not fulfill the necessities of Article 11.071, § 5(a)(2) was an sufficient and unbiased state floor precluding deserves evaluation of his declare the place that provision authorizes a subsequent petition when “by a preponderance of the proof, however for a violation of the US Structure no rational juror may have discovered the applicant responsible past an affordable doubt” and the confession whose constitutionality Petitioner is difficult was the one important proof linking him to the capital homicide with which he was charged.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Avenatti v. United States, 23-6753
Points: (1) whether or not 18 U.S.C. § 1346, making it a criminal offense to interact in “sincere providers fraud,” is void for vagueness; (2); whether or not civil litigation conduct – specifically, an lawyer’s settlement demand – can assist federal prison extortion legal responsibility.
(relisted after the Could 16 convention)

Returning Relists

Hamm v. Smith, 23-167
Points: (1) Whether or not Hall v. Florida and Moore v. Texas mandate that courts deem the usual of “considerably subaverage mental functioning” for figuring out mental incapacity in Atkins v. Virginia happy when an offender’s lowest IQ rating, decreased by one customary error of measurement, is 70 or beneath; and (2) whether or not the courtroom ought to overrule Corridor and Moore, or not less than make clear that they enable courts to contemplate a number of IQ scores and the likelihood that an offender’s IQ doesn’t fall on the backside of the bottom IQ rating’s error vary.
(relisted after the Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22, Mar. 28, Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Cunningham v. Florida, 23-5171
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Nov. 17, Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Guzman v. Florida, 23-5173
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Crane v. Florida, 23-5455
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Arellano-Ramirez v. Florida, 23-5567
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Jackson v. Florida, 23-5570
Problem:Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Sposato v. Florida, 23-5575
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Morton v. Florida, 23-5579
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony
(rescheduled earlier than the Dec. 1, Dec. 8, Jan. 5, Jan. 12, Jan. 19, Feb. 16, Feb. 23, Mar. 1, Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Aiken v. Florida, 23-5794
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Enrriquez v. Florida, 23-5965
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 15, Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Bartee v. Florida, 23-6143
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Manning v. Florida, 23-6049
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(rescheduled earlier than the Mar. 22 and Mar 28 conferences; relisted after the Apr. 12, Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Tillman v. Florida, 23-6304
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(relisted after the Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)

Sanon v. Florida, 23-6289
Problem: Whether or not the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments assure the suitable to a trial by a 12-person jury when the defendant is charged with a felony.
(relisted after the Apr. 19, Apr. 26, Could 9 and Could 16 conferences)



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